Table of Contents

- About The Coursera
- About Asymmetric Cryptography and Key Management Course
- Asymmetric Cryptography and Key Management Quiz Answers
- Week 1 Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Asymmetric Cryptography Overview

- Week 2 Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: RSA Operations Quiz Answers
- Quiz 2: RSA Algorithm Quiz Answers

- Week 3 Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Discrete Logarithm and Primitive Root
- Quiz 2: Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange and El Gamal Encryption

- Week 4 Quiz Answers
- Quiz 1: Key Distribution and Management

- Conclusion

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**About Asymmetric Cryptography and Key Management Course**

Welcome to the Introduction to Asymmetric Cryptography and Key Management!

In asymmetric **cryptography**, also known as public-key cryptography, the transmitter and receiver utilise a pair of public-private keys, as opposed to a single symmetric key, and their **cryptographic **operations are consequently asymmetric.

This course will begin with a review of the fundamentals of **asymmetric cryptography**, followed by an explanation of how the usage of a pair of keys can provide distinct security properties. Then, we will examine the common asymmetric techniques in the **RSA **cypher algorithm and the** Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange protocol** to see how and why they protect communications/access.

Last but not least, we will explore the key distribution and management for both symmetric and public keys, as well as the fundamental concepts in public-key distribution, such as the public-key authority, digital certificate, and public-key infrastructure.

This course also describes some mathematical concepts, such as prime factorization and discrete logarithm, that form the basis for the security of asymmetric primitives; a working knowledge of discrete mathematics is helpful for this course; the **Symmetric Cryptography** course (recommended to be taken before this course) also discusses modulo arithmetic.

This course is cross-listed and is included in two specialisations: Applied Cryptography and Introduction to Applied Cryptography.

** This course is included in numerous curricula.**This course is applicable to a number of Specialization and Professional Certificate programmes. This course will contribute to your education in any of the following programmes:

- Applied Cryptography Expertise
- Specialization Introduction to Applied Cryptography

**Course Apply Link â€“ Asymmetric Cryptography and Key Management **

**Asymmetric Cryptography and Key Management Quiz Answers**

### Week 1 Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Asymmetric Cryptography Overview

Q1. Given any plaintext p, a cipher supporting asymmetric cryptography with an encryption function (Enc) and the corresponding decryption function (Dec), and the public-private key pair (Ki,ki) for any user i, which of the followings are true for a cipher that can be used for both message confidentiality and source integrity/signature, e.g., RSA cipher? Select all that applies.

- Dec(k1,Enc(k1,p))=p
- Dec(K1,Enc(k2,p))=p
**Dec(k1,Enc(K1,p))=p****Dec(K2,Enc(k2,p))=p**

Q2. Which of the followings are true about asymmetric cryptography? Check all that applies.

- Asymmetric cryptography is also called private-key cryptography.
**Key distribution and management should be addressed when using asymmetric cryptography.**- Asymmetric cryptography supersedes and generalizes symmetric cryptography.
- Given the same key length, asymmetric cryptographic scheme is more secure than symmetric cryptographic scheme.

Q3. Which of the followings are false for asymmetric cipher requirements? Select all that applies.

- It is computationally easy for any user to generate his/her own public-private key pair.
- The encryption and the decryption computations are easy only with the key that is being used.
**Both the public key and the private key should remain secret against an attacker.**- It is computationally infeasible for an attacker to derive the private key from a public key.
- It is computationally infeasible from an attacker to derive the plaintext from the public key and the ciphertext.
**Both the sender and the receiver can use the same private key for encryption and decryption.**

Q4. Suppose f is a trapdoor one-way function designed to be used with the key, k. Which of the followings are computationally easy?

**Solving f(x) if the input and k are known****Solving the inverse of f if the input to the f-inverse and k are known**- Solving the inverse of f if the input to the f-inverse is known
- Finding k if the input and the corresponding output of f are known

Q5. Which of the followings does the RSA algorithm support? Select all that apply.

**Key exchange****Digital signature****Encryption/decryption**

Q6. Which of the followings does Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange support: encryption/decryption, digital sig- natures, key exchange? Select all that apply.

**Key exchange**- Encryption/decryption
- Digital signature

### Week 2 Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: RSA Operations Quiz Answers

Q1. What is the Euler Totient Function of 12, phi(12)?

4

Q2. Using the same notations as in the lecture, e.g., p and q are the two primes and e and d are the public key and the private key, respectively, p=5, q=11, e=3. What is the value of phi(n) where phi(n) is the Euler Totient function of n and n is the modulus for RSA cipher?

40

Q3. (This question builds on the previous question.) Using the same notations as in the lecture, e.g., p and q are the two primes and e and d are the public key and the private key, respectively, p=5, q=11, e=3. Using the phi(n) that you found in the previous question and the Extended Euclidean algorithm yields d=27. What is the ciphertext C when encrypting M=9?

14

Q4. Using the same notations as in the lecture, e.g., p and q are the two primes and e and d are the public key and the private key, respectively, p=7, q=11, e=17. What is the value of phi(n) where phi(n) is the Euler Totient function of n and n is the modulus for RSA cipher?

60

Q5. (This question builds on the previous question.) Using the same notations as in the lecture, e.g., p and q are the two primes and e and d are the public key and the private key, respectively, p=7, q=11, e=17. Using the phi(n) that you found in the previous question and the Extended Euclidean algorithm yields d=53. What is the ciphertext C when encrypting M=8?

57

#### Quiz 2: RSA Algorithm Quiz Answers

Q1. Using the same notations as in the lecture, p and q are the two prime factors of n, and e and d are the public key and the private key, respectively. Which of the followings are to be secret against the attacker, assuming that the Prime Factorization problem remains difficult to solve?

**p**- e
- The Euler totient function of e, phi(e)
- n
- The Euler totient function of p, phi(p)
**d****q****The Euler totient function of n, phi(n)**

Q2. Using the same notations as in the lecture, p and q are the two prime factors of n, and e and d are the public key and the private key, respectively.

Which of the following statements about the RSA cipher are true? Select all that applies.

**For the public-private keys of RSA, e and d, given any plaintext m, m raised to the power of e.d (m^{e.d}) is equal to m.**- e and d are independent from p and q.
**After choosing e, the Extended Euclidean algorithm can be used to derive d.****After choosing d, the Extended Euclidean algorithm can be used to derive e.**- RSA encryption and decryption computations (from plaintext to ciphertext and from ciphertext to plaintext) use all of p, q, e, and d.

Q3. Using the same notations as in the lecture, e.g., p and q are the two primes and e and d are the public key and the private key, respectively, p=5, q=11. Alice chooses a private key d and derives the public key e. Which of the followings can work for the values of d?

**9**- 8
- 5
**21****17**- 2

Q4. Using the same notations as in the lecture, e.g., p and q are the two primes and e and d are the public key and the private key, respectively, p=3, q=11, and e=7.

The attacker performs a chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA). It has a known ciphertext 14 and wants to retrieve the corresponding plaintext. It computes câ€™ = c * r^e mod n and chooses the ciphertext 14 * 2187 mod 33 = 27 and retrieves the corresponding plaintext, 15. What is the plaintext corresponding to the ciphertext 14?

**5**- 12
- 37
- 23
- 3

### Week 3 Quiz Answers

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#### Quiz 1: Discrete Logarithm and Primitive Root

Q1. What is the value of the discrete logarithm of 3 base 2 mod 5?

3

Q2. What is the value of the discrete logarithm of 4 base 5 mod 7?

2

Q3. Identify the primitive roots of the prime number 3. Select all that applies.

**2**- 0
- 1

Q4. Identify the primitive roots of the prime number 7. Select all that applies.

**3****5**- 4
- 1
- 6
- 2

Q5. Which of the following statements are true?

**Using the primitive roots of a prime modulus p yields the maximum p-1 possible outcome values for the discrete logarithm, which is desired for cryptography.**- The discrete logarithm mod p always exist and is unique if p is a prime number.
**Given a large modulus n, the discrete logarithm problem is computationally difficult.**- Given a large modulus n, the exponential operation mod n is computationally difficult.

#### Quiz 2: Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange and El Gamal Encryption

Q1. Alice and Bob exchanges a key using Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange protocol. Which of the followings do Alice know by the end of the protocol? Select all that applies.

- Bobâ€™s private key (X_B)
**Bobâ€™s public key (Y_B)****The prime modulus (p)****The primitive root of the prime modulus (a)****The shared key by the protocol (K)**

Q2. Alice and Bob exchanges a key using Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange protocol. Which of the followings are to be secret against a passive attacker (who wishes to learn the shared key)? Select all that applies.

**Bobâ€™s private key (Y_B)****The shared key by the protocol (K)**- The prime modulus (p)
- The primitive root of the prime modulus (a)
- Bobâ€™s public key (X_B)

Q3. Alice and Bob uses Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange to share a key with a common prime p=11 and a primitive root a=2. If Alice has a public key Y_A=9, what is her private key X_A?

6

Q4. (This question builds on the previous question.) Alice and Bob uses Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange to share a key with a common prime p=11 and a primitive root a=2. If Bob has a public key Y_B=3, what is the secret key K shared with Alice?

3

Q5. Which of the followings are true for Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange and Man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack? Select all that applies.

**Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange protocol is vulnerable to MITM attack because of the lack of authentication.**- Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange protocol establishes a shared secret key between the two parties involved in the protocol and therefore is considered symmetric cryptography.
- Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange protocol is widely used for digital signature.
- MITM attack is a passive attack.

Q6. Which of the followings are true about El Gamal Encryption?

**El Gamal Encryption uses a prime modulus and a primitive root of the modulus.****El Gamal Encryption includes the message and the key that is used to protect the message, and the key itself is protected against eavesdropping.**- El Gamal Encryption relies on prime factorization problem.
- El Gamal Encryption is used for key exchange between the participating parties.

### Week 4 Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Key Distribution and Management

Q1. Alice and Bob wants to communicate with each other. They first use Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange protocol to establish a session key and then use the session key to encrypt the messages from Alice to Bob. An attacker eavesdrops on the resulting ciphertext and conducts a brute-force attack on the encryption. Suppose the attacker succeeds in her brute-force search. Which of the followings remain secure (secret against the attacker)? Select all that applies.

**Bobâ€™s private key****Aliceâ€™s private key**- The message from Alice to Bob
- The session key
- Bobâ€™s public key

Q2. Which of the followings is the most temporary by design?

- A userâ€™s public-private key pair
**Nonce**- Public-key certificate
- Session key
- Master key

Q3. What are the purposes of a nonce in key distribution? Select all that applies.

- To use it for encryption so that the ciphertext does not make sense to the attacker
- It is used by convention and has no practical use
**To connect the response to the corresponding communication**- For padding the packet
- To use it as a replacement key in case of compromise

Q4. There are 5 computers (hardware. Each computer hosts 4 virtual machines (VM) with different addresses, and each VM hosts 10 applications. How many key exchange sessions (in one session, two logical parties share a key) are needed if the decentralized key distribution is used so that all VMâ€™s share a pair-wise keys?

190

Q5. (This problem has the same setup as the previous question but asks a different question.) There are 5 computers (hardware. Each computer hosts 4 virtual machines (VM) with different addresses, and each VM hosts 10 applications. How many key exchange sessions (in one session, two logical parties share a key) are needed if the decentralized key distribution is used so that all applications share a pair-wise keys?

19900

Q6. Which of the followings are needed for a CA to generate a digital certificate?

- The private key of the user (the certificate subject)
**The request for the userâ€™s certificate****The public key of the user (the certificate subject)**- The nonce used by the user in the last communication
**The private key of CA**- The public key of CA

Q7. Which of the followings are required to verify the signature of the digital certificate signed by a CA?

**The certificate itself**- The private key of CA
**The public key of CA**- The nonce involved in the user-CA communication
- The userâ€™s request for the digital certificate

Q8. Which of the following statements are true? Select all that applies.

**Digital certificates can be requested before using it to share the public key.****Once receiving the digital certificates signed by a Certificate Authority (CA), a user can share it with anybody whom it wants to communicate.**- The communication between the Public-Key Authority and the requesting user needs to be secure, so that a third party cannot decrypt and learn the content of the communication
- Digital certificates remain valid until it explicitly gets revoked.
- Any user has the authority to revoke a certificate.
- Digital certificates need to be accessible only the user that requested for it.

Q9. Which of the followings are the PKIâ€™s responsibilities? Select all that applies.

**Manage certificates****Store certificates****Create certificates****Revoke certificates****Distribute certificates**

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**Conclusion**

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## FAQs

### Which of the following is correct for asymmetric key cryptography? â€ş

Explanation. **RSA** is an algorithm used by modern computers to encrypt and decrypt messages. It is an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm.

**Which statement is true about the asymmetric cryptography keys? â€ş**

Asymmetric encryption involves two keys, private and public. **Something encrypted with one can only be decrypted with the other**. There is no shared key. A message encrypted with a key can not be decrypted with the same key.

**How many keys would be necessary to accommodate 100 users in an asymmetric cryptography system? â€ş**

For the asymmetric keys, each one would have 2 keys, so a total of **2000 keys**.

**What is an example of asymmetric key cryptography? â€ş**

The biggest example of asymmetric cryptography for VPNs is in the **RSA protocol**. Three professors at MIT, Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adelman (thus RSA), came up with the RSA encryption algorithm, which is an implementation of public/private key cryptography.

**What two 2 types of keys are using for asymmetric encryption? â€ş**

Asymmetric encryption is also called public key encryption, but it actually relies on a key pair. Two mathematically related keys, **one called the public key and another called the private key**, are generated to be used together.

**What are the two types of key used in asymmetric encryption? â€ş**

Asymmetric encryption uses the notion of a key pair: a different key is used for the encryption and decryption process. **One of the keys is typically known as the private key and the other is known as the public key**.

**How many keys required in asymmetric key cryptography? â€ş**

In asymmetric (public key) cryptography, both communicating parties (i.e. both Alice and Bob) have two keys of their own â€” just to be clear, that's four keys total.

**Who keeps the private key in asymmetric key cryptography __________? â€ş**

Explanation: The private key is kept only by **the receiver of the message**. Its aim is to make sure that only the intended receiver can decipher the message. 3. Which one of the following algorithm is not used in asymmetric-key cryptography?

**What is the difference between symmetric key cryptography and asymmetric key cryptography? â€ş**

Symmetric Key Cryptography, also known as Symmetric Encryption, encrypts and decrypts data using a secret key. This is the inverse of Asymmetric Encryption, which uses a single key to encrypt and a different key to decrypt.

**What are the 3 main types of cryptographic algorithms? â€ş**

**There are three general classes of NIST-approved cryptographic algorithms, which are defined by the number or types of cryptographic keys that are used with each.**

- Hash functions.
- Symmetric-key algorithms.
- Asymmetric-key algorithms.
- Hash Functions.
- Symmetric-Key Algorithms for Encryption and Decryption.

### What is the formula for asymmetric keys? â€ş

The number of keys required to connect N parties using symmetric cryptography is given by the formula: **(N * (N-1)) / 2**. I like to write it (NÂ˛-N)/2 because seeing the square helps me remember it's the formula for symmetric algorithms. Asymmetric is simply 2N.

**Which three types of encryption are asymmetric? â€ş**

Examples of asymmetric encryption include: **Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA)** **the Digital Signature Standard (DSS), which incorporates the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)** **Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC)**

**What are the two main types of cryptography? â€ş**

**Cryptography is classified into two categories based on the types of keys and encryption algorithms:**

- Symmetric Key Cryptography (Secret key)
- Asymmetric Key Cryptography (Public key)

**What are examples of cryptographic keys? â€ş**

**Types of Cryptographic Keys**

- Private signature key: ...
- Public signature verification key: ...
- Symmetric authentication key: ...
- Private authentication key: ...
- Public authentication key: ...
- Symmetric data encryption key: ...
- Symmetric key wrapping key: ...
- Random number generation keys:

**Which three protocols use asymmetric key algorithms? â€ş**

**Examples of protocols using asymmetric key algorithms include:**

- S/MIME.
- GPG, an implementation of OpenPGP, and an Internet Standard.
- EMV, EMV Certificate Authority.
- IPsec.
- PGP.
- ZRTP, a secure VoIP protocol.
- Transport Layer Security standardized by IETF and its predecessor Secure Socket Layer.
- SILC.

**Which keys are used to encrypt and decrypt data in asymmetric cryptography? â€ş**

When an asymmetric key pair is generated, **the public key is typically used to encrypt, and the private key is typically used to decrypt**.

**Why is asymmetric key more secure? â€ş**

Increased data security is the primary benefit of asymmetric cryptography. It is the most secure encryption process because **users are never required to reveal or share their private keys**, thus decreasing the chances of a cybercriminal discovering a user's private key during transmission.

**How many types of keys are there in cryptography? â€ş**

Firstly, and most importantly, there are **two primary types** of cryptographic keys: symmetric and asymmetric. The latter always come in mathematically-related pairs consisting of a private key and a public key.

**How many keys are required for secure communication between 10 users a in asymmetric cryptography? â€ş**

This can be calculated as n(n-1)/2 where n is the number of communicating parties. For example, if ten parties want to communicate with each other securely they would need **45 different key pairs**: 10(10-1)/2 = 45.

**How many keys are possible in AES? â€ş**

A 128-bit level of encryption has 2128 possible key combinations (340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 â€“ 39 digits long) and **256-bit AES encryption has 2256 possible key combinations** (a number 78 digits long).

### How many keys are used in asymmetric cryptography quizlet? â€ş

Asymmetric encryption uses **two keys** (a public key and a private key) to encrypt and decrypt information and is often referred to as public key cryptography. Secure Hashing Algorithm 1 (SHA-1) is a hashing algorithm and it doesn't use a key.

**How many keys are used in private key cryptography? â€ş**

**Two keys**, public and private, are required to encrypt and decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with a public key algorithm. Symmetric encryption uses a single secret key.

**Is private key symmetric or asymmetric? â€ş**

**Symmetric encryption** uses a private key to encrypt and decrypt an encrypted email. Asymmetric encryption uses the public key of the recipient to encrypt the message. Then if the recipient wants to decrypt the message the recipient will have to use his/her private key to decrypt.

**What is the primary difference between symmetric keys and asymmetric keys? â€ş**

The basic difference between these two types of encryption is that **symmetric encryption uses one key for both encryption and decryption, and the asymmetric encryption uses public key for encryption and a private key for decryption**.

**What type of key or keys are used in symmetric? â€ş**

Symmetric encryption is a type of encryption where only one key (**a secret key**) is used to both encrypt and decrypt electronic data.

**What are the types of symmetric key algorithm? â€ş**

There are two types of symmetric algorithms (or ciphers): stream and block. A block cipher divides the data into blocks (often 64-bit blocks, but newer algorithms sometimes use 128-bit blocks) and encrypts the data one block at a time. Stream ciphers encrypt the data as a stream of bits, one bit at a time.

**What are the 3 aspects of security in cryptography? â€ş**

**Confidentiality, integrity, availability**.

**What are the 3 properties of a cryptographic hash function? â€ş**

**In particular, cryptographic hash functions exhibit these three properties:**

- They are â€ścollision-free.â€ť This means that no two input hashes should map to the same output hash.
- They can be hidden. It should be difficult to guess the input value for a hash function from its output.
- They should be puzzle-friendly.

**What are three major components of cryptography? â€ş**

**A basic cryptosystem includes the following components:**

- Plaintext- This is the data that needs to be protected.
- Encryption algorithm- This is the mathematical algorithm that takes plaintext as the input and returns ciphertext. ...
- Ciphertext- This is the encrypted, or unreadable, version of the plaintext.

**What is the most common asymmetric algorithm? â€ş**

**RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman)** â€” RSA is considered one of the most secure (and commonly used) asymmetric key encryption algorithms. It's virtually uncrackable using modern computers.

### Why do we use asymmetric keys? â€ş

Asymmetric encryption (also known as asymmetric cryptography) allows users to encrypt information using shared keys. You need to send a message across the internet, but you don't want anyone but the intended recipient to see what you've written. Asymmetric encryption can help you achieve that goal.

**How many keys does a symmetric key have? â€ş**

Symmetric cryptography uses **a single key** to encrypt and decrypt. Asymmetric cryptography uses two keys, one to encrypt and the other to decrypt.

**What are the 5 elements of a symmetric encryption scheme? â€ş**

There are five main components of a symmetric encryption system: **plaintext, encryption algorithm, secret key, ciphertext, and the decryption algorithm**.

**What are the 6 elements of public key encryption? â€ş**

**Any public key cryptographic algorithm has six elements as follow:**

- Plain Text. This is a readable message which is given as input to the algorithm. ...
- Encryption Algorithm. ...
- Public and Private keys. ...
- Cipher Text. ...
- Decryption Algorithm.

**What are the two most important factors in determining the strength of a cryptographic key? â€ş**

doi: 10.17226/5131. Cryptographic strength depends on two factors: **the size of the key and the mathematical structure of the algorithm itself**.

**Which algorithm is used in asymmetric encryption? â€ş**

The **RSA algorithm**, named for its creators Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, is an asymmetric algorithm used all over the world, including in the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol, which is used to secure many common transactions such as Web and e-mail traffic.

**What algorithms are asymmetric? â€ş**

Asymmetric-key algorithms are commonly referred to as â€ś**public-key algorithms**â€ť. They use two mathematically associated keys knows as public and private keys. One key is used for data encryption, and the other is used for decryption of data. The combination of a public and private key is called a key pair.

**What is asymmetric cryptography quizlet? â€ş**

Confidentiality, and Integrity are the two uses of Public Key Crypto. Public Key Crypto (Asymmetric) **A Cryptographic technique where both parties in the communication use different keys**.

**What are the five functions of cryptography? â€ş**

**Base cryptographic functions are in the following broad groups:**

- Service Provider Functions.
- Key Generation and Exchange Functions.
- Object Encoding and Decoding Functions.
- Data Encryption and Decryption Functions.
- Hash and Digital Signature Functions.

**What is the most common cryptography? â€ş**

AES. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the algorithm trusted as the standard by the U.S. Government and numerous organizations. Although it is highly efficient in 128-bit form, AES also uses keys of 192 and 256 bits for heavy-duty encryption purposes.

### What are the two types of data security? â€ş

**Authentication and authorization**

Two processes are used to ensure only appropriate users can access enterprise data: authentication and authorization.

**What are all the types of keys? â€ş**

But just for knowledge's sake, let's briefly discuss the 10 types of keys. They are flat key, corrugated key, tubular key (or barrel key), dimple key, warded key and jagged key, sidebar key, combination/mixed key, and spool key.

**What is the longest encryption key? â€ş**

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) keys are symmetric keys that can be three different key lengths (128, 192, or 256 bits). AES is the encryption standard that is recognized and recommended by the US government. The 256-bit keys are the longest allowed by AES.

**What are the different types of key pairs? â€ş**

There are basically two types of key-based algorithms: **symmetric (secret-key) and asymmetric (public-key)**. The difference between these is that the symmetric keys use the same algorithms for encryption and decryption.

**Which one of the following is true for asymmetric-key cryptography Mcq? â€ş**

Which one of the following is true for asymmetric-key cryptography ? **Private key is kept by the receiver and public key is announced to the public**.

**Which of the following are examples of asymmetric-key algorithms? â€ş**

Asymmetric encryption algorithms examples include RSA, Diffie-Hellman, ECC and DSA.

**Which of the following is not used in asymmetric-key cryptography? â€ş**

Which one of the following algorithm is not used in asymmetric-key cryptography? Explanation: **Electronic code book algorithm** is a block cipher method in which each block of text in an encrypted message corresponds to a block of data. It is not feasible for block sizes smaller than 40 bits.

**How many keys does an asymmetric key or public key cipher use? â€ş**

Public key encryption uses two different keys. One key is used to encrypt the information and the other is used to decrypt the information. Sometimes this is referred to as asymmetric encryption because two keys are required to make the system and/or process work securely.

**What does an asymmetric key or public key cipher use 1 key 2 key 3 key 4 key? â€ş**

Asymmetric encryption uses a mathematically related pair of keys for encryption and decryption: a public key and a private key. If the public key is used for encryption, then the related private key is used for decryption. If the private key is used for encryption, then the related public key is used for decryption.

**Which keys are used for encryption and decryption in public key cryptosystem _____? â€ş**

The **public key** is used to encrypt and the private key is used to decrypt.

### What are the 4 principles of cryptography? â€ş

**Data Confidentiality, Data Integrity, Authentication and Non-repudiation** are core principles of modern-day cryptography.

**What are the 2 main types of cryptographic algorithms? â€ş**

Encryption Algorithms

Cryptography is broadly classified into two categories: **Symmetric key Cryptography and Asymmetric key Cryptography** (popularly known as public key cryptography). Now Symmetric key Cryptography is further categorized as Classical Cryptography and Modern Cryptography.

**What are the most common asymmetric key algorithms? â€ş**

**RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman)** â€” RSA is considered one of the most secure (and commonly used) asymmetric key encryption algorithms. It's virtually uncrackable using modern computers.

**What is the difference between asymmetric keys and symmetric keys? â€ş**

The main difference is that **symmetric encryption uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data, while asymmetric encryption uses a pair of keys â€“ public key to encrypt data and a private key to decrypt information**. Both symmetric and asymmetric algorithms provide authentication capability.